1、Permit your servant, Liang, to observe: the late sovereign wastaken from us while his life's work, the restoration of the Han,remained unfinished. Today, in a divided empire, our third, theprovince of Yizhou, war-worn and under duress, faces a season ofcrisis that threatens our very survival. Despite this, theofficials at court persevere in their tasks, and loyal-mindedofficers throughout the realm dedicate themselves to you becauseone and all they cherish the memory of the exceptional treatmentthey enjoyed from the late sovereign and wish to repay it inservice to Your Majesty.

2、Truly this is a time to widen your sagely audience in order toenhance the late Emperor's glorious virtue and foster the moraleof your dedicated officers. it would be unworthy of Your Majestyto demean yourself by resorting to ill-chosen justificationsthat would block the avenues of loyal remonstrance.

3、The royal court and the ministerial administration constitute asingle government. Both must be judged by one standard. Thsoewho do evil and violate the codes, as well as those who are loyaland good, must receive their due from the proper authorities.This will make manifest Your Majesty's fair and enlightenedgovernance. Let no unseemly bias lead to different rules forthe court and the administration.

4、Privy counselors and imperial attendants like Guo Youzhi, Fei Yi,and Dong Yun are all solid, reliable men, loyal of purpose, pur ein motive. The late Emperor selected them for office so that theywould serve Your Majesty after his demise. 

5、In my own humble opinion,consulting these men on palace affairs great or small before actionis taken will prevent errors and shortcomings and maximize advantages.

6、Xiang Chong, a general of fine character and fair-minded conduct,profoundly versed in military matters, proved himself in battleduring the previous reign, and the late Emperor pronounced himcapable. That is why the assembly has recommended him for overallcommand.

7、In my humble opinion, General Xiang Chong should beconsulted on all military matters large or small to ensure harmonyin the ranks and the judicious use of personnel.

8、The Former Han thrived because its emperors stayed close toworthy vassals and far from conniving courtiers. The oppositepolicy led the Later Han to ruin. Whenever the late Emperordiscussed this problem with me, he decried the failings ofEmperors Huan and Ling. Privy counselors Guo Youzhi and FeiYi, Secretary Chen Zhen, Senior Adviser Zhang Yi, and MilitaryCounselor Jiang Wan are all men of shining integrity and unshakabledevotion. I beg Your Majesty to keep close to them and to trustthem, for that will strengthen our hopes for the resurgence ofthe house of Han.

9、I began as a common man, toiling in my fields in Nanyang, doingwhat I could to keep body and soul together in an age of disorderand taking no interest in making a name for myself among thelords of the realm. Though it was beneath the dignity of thelate Emperor to do so, he honored my thatched cottage to solicitmy counsel on the events of the day. Grateful for his regard, Irespond to his appeal and threw myself heart and soul into hisservice.

10、Hard times followed for the cause of the late Emperor. I assumedmy duties at a critical moment for our defeated army, acceptingassignment in a period of direst danger. Now twenty-one yearshave passed. The late Emperor always appreciated my meticulouscaution and, as the end neared, placed his great cause in myhands. Since that moment, I have tormented myself right andday lest I prove unworthy of his trust and thus discredit hisjudgment.

11、That is why I crossed the River Lu in the summer heat andpenetrated the barren lands of the Man. Now, the south subdued,our arms sufficing, it behooves me to marshal our soldiers toconquer the northern heartland and do my humble best to removethe hateful traitors, restore the house of Han, and return itto the former capital. This is the way I mean to honor my debtto the late Emperor and fulfill my duty to Your Majesty.

12、As for weighing the advantages of internal policy and makingloyal recommendations to Your Majesty, that is the responsibilityof Guo Youzhi, Fei Yi, and Dong Yun. My only desire is to obtainand execute your commission to chasten the traitors and restorethe Han. Should I prove unfit, punish my offense and report itto the spirit of the late Emperor. If those three vassals failto sustain Your Majesty’s virtue, then their negligence shouldbe publicized and censured.

13、Your Majesty, take counsel with yourself and consult widely onthe right course. Examine and adopt sound opinions, and neverforget the last edict of the late Emperor. 

14、Overwhelmed withgratitude for the favor I have received from you, I now departon a distant campaign. Blinded by my tears falling on thispetition, I write I know not what.
















出师表简介:出师表是诸葛亮在北伐曹魏之前写的,诸葛亮一生总共五次北伐,出师表就是在第一次北伐前写的,全文以恳切委婉的言辞劝勉后主要广开言路、严明赏罚、亲贤远佞,以此兴复汉室 还于旧都;同时也表达自己以身许国,忠贞不二的思想。